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Glaucoma refers to a group of progressive optic neuropathies characterized by degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells and retinal nerve fiber layer, resulting in changes in the optic nerve head. Glaucoma is associated with optic nerve damage induced by intraocular pressure (IOP)-related loss of retinal ganglion cells. Glaucoma is the major cause of irreversible blindness throughout the world. 


Risk Factors: Age, frailty, gender, myopia, genetics, family history, smoking, race, systemic hypotension and hypertension, vasospasm, systemic or topical steroid use, migraine, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and most significantly, increased intraocular pressure. 


Globally, 57.5 million people are affected by POAG, with a prevalence of 2.2%. PACG is not prevalent, affecting only 0.17% of people under 40 years of age, especially in East Asia. 


Prevalence of open-angle glaucoma (POCG):  Global: 2.4%. Asia: 2.1%, second most prevalent; Africa: 4.0%. China: 21 million (open-angle glaucoma + closed-angle glaucoma), of which 5.67 million are blind. In 2020: the total global POAG population is about 57.5 million, of which more than 53% are in Asia


Prevalence of closed-angle glaucoma (PACG): Global: 0.6%. Asia: 0.7%, most prevalent.  China: 21 million (open-angle glaucoma + closed-angle glaucoma). In 2020:The global population of PACG over 40 years old is 17.14 million, of which Asia accounts for more than 70%. 




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