Atopic dermatitis is also known as atopic dermatitis, atopic eczema, Besnier's somatic itchy rash or genetic allergic eczema. It features distinctive "atopic" characteristics seen in patients or their family members:
(1) Familial predisposition to asthma, allergic rhinitis, eczema;
(2) Allergic to xenobiotics;
(3) High IgE in the serum;
(4) Increased blood eosinophils. The typical atopic dermatitis has a specific eczema clinical presentation and the four characteristics mentioned above.
The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) in developed countries may be up to 10% - 20%. The prevalence of AD in adults in the United States may be up to 7.3%. Of these, nearly 40% are moderate to severe.
The prevalence of AD in China tends to increase relatively obviously. In 1998, the overall prevalence rate of school-age adolescents (6-20 years old) was 0.70%; in 2002, the prevalence rate of preschool children (1-7 years old) in 10 cities was 2.78%, while the 2012 Shanghai regional epidemiological survey showed that the prevalence rate of children aged 3-6 years old reached 8.3%.
In 2014, by adopting diagnostic criteria of clinicians, the prevalence of AD in Chinese children aged 1 to 7 years was up to 12.94%, and the prevalence of AD in infants aged 1 to 12 months was up to 30.48%, already close to the prevalence in Japanese and Korean children.
Global epidemiological distribution of childhood AD by regions
Compared to other types of dermatitis, patients with AD suffer from more pronounced symptoms of pruritus and bacterial infection. It is considered the number one skin disease in terms of disease burden among non-fatal diseases